(Augsburg, 1722, 6th ed., 1748); (4) by G. Cartier, O.S.B. A Catholic Bible is a Christian Bible that includes the whole 73-book canon recognized by the Catholic Church, including the deuterocanonical books. A complete Bible by John Pytlik and others appeared at Prague in 1488. John Sylvester, or Serestely, O.P., is credited with a translation of the New Testament which was published at Novae Insulae (1541) and Vienna (1574). Other translations appeared by Caspar Heltai (Klausenberg, 1551-64) and by George Csipkes (Leyden, 1717). Every day of every year, with notes on saints. A Bible Society version of the New Testament was made in 1829, but only the Gospel of St. Luke was printed. Another was issued in 1859. Principal Editions.—The first part of the Armenian version to be printed was the Psalter, published at Venice in 1565 by Abgar. Some authors even doubt the authenticity of the poetry ascribed to Caedmon. Then it rapidly fell into disuse and disappeared. A Rationalist Bible after the Hebrew and Greek by Ledrain appeared at Paris (1886-96). Chinese Versions.—Among earlier translations is a version of St. Matthew by Anger, a Japanese Christian (Goa, 1548). The origin of the oldest Latin version or versions is involved in much uncertainty. His Latin scholarship, his acquaintance with Biblical places and customs obtained by residence in Palestine, and his remarkable knowledge of Hebrew and of Jewish exegetical traditions, especially fitted him for a work of this kind. A second edition in Roman characters was published (1790) for the Scottish Highlanders. A complete version in the vernacular, a MS. preserved in the National Library at Paris, was made by Nicholas de Nardo, O.P., in 1472. A new translation was made by Durych and Prochaska (Prague, 1778, 1786, 1807). Though Taverner was an accomplished Greek scholar and somewhat of an English purist, his edition had no influence on the subsequent translations. Basque Versions.—A New Testament by Jean Licarrague (Rochelle, 1571) is probably the earliest Biblical work in the Basque tongue. To bring it into closer touch with the latter developments of textual criticism is the purpose that induced Pius X to entrust to the Benedictines the work of further revision. The third period extends from the late fourteenth to the sixteenth or early seventeenth century, and has furnished us with the pre-Wyclifite, the Wyclif, and the printed versions of the Bible. Saints Cyril and Methodius preached the Gospel to the Slays in the second half of the ninth century, and St. Cyril, having formed an alphabet, made for them, in Old Ecclesiastical Slavic, or Bulgarian, a translation of the Bible from the Greek. Portuguese Versions.—A Portuguese Bible for Catholics was issued by Ant. (d) There are also Targums on the Hagiographa, Psalms, Job, Proverbs, etc. Another Jewish version (Berlin, 1838) was the work of Arnheim, Fuchs, and Sachs. ), is the name now applied to some fragmentary versions published as the “Codices Basmyrici” by Zoega (“Catalogus”, Rome, 1810). of the New Testament. Santes Marmochini, O.P. stowensis”, II (1818-19), 180. It is still the official text of the Greek Church. Synopsis.—GREEK: Septuagint; Aquila; Theodotion; Symmachus; other versions. An account of its origin, recensions, and its historical importance has been given above (see Septuagint Version). Martini’s translation was also taken and shaped to Protestant purposes by the British and Foreign Bible Society (New Testament, 1813, and Bible, 1821). A corrected New Testament in Hebrew was given out by Caddock (London, 1798). Its title “Vulgate”, indicating its common use, and belonging to the Old Latin until the seventh century, was firmly established in the thirteenth. Among the Reformers, Latin Scriptural labors were largely confined to commentaries and the translation of single books, e.g. Only verbal improvements were the versions of Pierre de Besse (1608), Pierre Frizon (1621), and Beron (1647). Editions in the modern dialects are, among others: Complete Bible (Moscow, 1835). A version from original sources, and accepted by the Oxford University Press for national official use, was given out by Segond (Geneva, 1874; Nancy, 1877; and Geneva, 1879). This was got out in a revision which was practically a new translation by Richard Parry and John Davies (London, 1620). The Jesuit Father de Mailla wrote an explanation of the Gospels for Sundays and feasts in 1740, and it is still used. Erhard, O.S.B. Scotch.—In Scotland the Synod of Argyll gave out a Gaelic version of fifty psalms (Glasgow, 1659), and all the psalms in 1715. A mutilated reprint of it (London, 1822) was circulated by the Bible Society. Welsh, or Cymric, Versions.—Partial versions were made before the fifteenth century, but a translation by Celydd Sfan was known to be in existence about 1470. He set himself to the task A.D. 390 and in A.D. 405 completed the protocanonical books of the Old Testament from the Hebrew, and the deuterocanonical Books of Tobias and Judith from the Aramaic. (c) Here belongs a version of the Apocalypse with a commentary; the latter was for some time attributed to Wyclif, but is really a version of a Norman commentary from the first half of the thirteenth century. The Protestant version is based on the Hebrew Bible. In the latter part of the fourth century, the text of the Itala was found to have variant readings in different parts of the Church. That they were independent translations from the Greek seems certain, and Biblical criticism has therefore profited by the light they have thrown on the Septuagint and the New-Testament MSS. VERSIONS FROM THE HEBREW: Chaldaic; Syriac (Peschitto); Arabic (Carshuni); Persian; Samaritan Pentateuch; Vulgate; other Latin versions. (a) The earliest is on the Pentateuch and is known as the Targum of Onkelos, whom tradition has identified with Aquila and whose Greek translation has something of the same literal character. First Church of Christ A version from original sources (Cologne, 1739; Paris, 1753, 1777, 1819) was the work of Le Gros. Under a pseudonym he issued an edition of the same for Christians. Modern investigation reveals no solid ground for believing in these revisions. Another Greek version practically contemporaneous with Aquila’s was made by Theodotion, probably an Ephesian Jew or Ebionite. Though supposed to translate from the originals, he made use of the Latin version of Lyra, the Hebrew-Latin interlinear of Pagninus, and an older German translation of the Vulgate whose order he retained. Reminiscent of the Douay-Rheims bible, which was the standard Catholic version for many years, the RSV has “a kind of flowery language, even poetic ring to … Bishop Parker divided the whole Bible into parcels, and distributed them among bishops and other learned men for revision. A complete version was made towards the end of the sixteenth century by Stephen SzdntG (Latin, Arator). then current. Mexican Versions.—The first known Biblical undertaking in Mexico was a version of the Gospels and Epistles in 1579 by Didacus de S. Maria, O.P., and the Book of Proverbs by Louis Rodriguez, O.S.F. The Armenian version follows quite closely the “received” Greek text. A Psalter was also made by Robert Kirk (Edinburg, 1684). Hungarian Versions.—A fourteenth-fifteenth-century MS. in Vienna gives parts of the Old Testament from the Vulgate by the Friars Minor, Thomas and Valentine. They were made from the Vulgate, differing only in dialect and presenting variant readings. The same was republished at Antwerp, 1583, with a larger number of variants, by the Louvain theologians under the direction of Lucas of Bruges. Another version is credited to Dr. Morrison. A less successful version of the Bible was issued by Henry Florin at Abo (1685). When Empress Elizabeth ordered a new revision of St. Cyril’s translation (1751), the translators used the Ostrog edition, correcting it according to the Septuagint and changing the Old Slavonic in great part to Modern Russian. The first printed Bible (Valencia, 1478), following an Old-Testament version from the French and Latin by Romeu de Sabruguera, O.P., was in the Catalonian dialect and was the work of the General of the Carthusians, Boniface Ferrer (d. 1417), a brother of St. Vincent Ferrer, O.P. (Venice, 1477). The first, complete Protestant Bible in Italian was printed at Geneva (1562). This, with three others, the Complutensian, Aldine, and Grabian, are the leading representative etlitions available. After the Babylonian Captivity, the Jews developed a large use of the Chaldaic, or Aramaic, tongue. Others held it to be inferior to the Septuagint, and those who recognized its merits feared it would cause dissensions. Another literal version was undertaken by Thomas Malvenda, O.P. This has remained the norm for later Russian Bibles. After his death a further revision was carried out under the direction of Franciscus Toletus, S.J., and finally the work was printed in 1598, with its title unchanged: “Biblia Sacra Vulgatw editionis, Sixti V Pontificis Maximi jussu recognita et edita”.
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