Genetic variation, population structure and cryptic species within the black mudfish, Likelihood-based tests of topologies in phylogenetics. The New Zealand lizard fauna is limited to two families, diplodactylid geckos and Eugongylinae skinks. Given the high frequency of predation and risk behaviors in free-roaming owned cats, it may be beneficial to educate owners about strategies to minimize risk such as housing them indoors, containing them to their properties or monitoring their time spent outdoors. Localities include Pandora, Tapotupotu Bay and eastern Tom Bowling Bay. 5. Total genomic DNA was extracted from liver, toe, or tail samples using a modified phenol-chloroform extraction protocol (Sambrook, Fritsch & Maniatis, 1989). Cyclodina aenea. However, because the Northland region was dominated by expansive Kauri forests (until the arrival of humans), which were not widespread in the lower North Island (Worthy & Holdaway, 2002), ecological factors might also explain the presence of the Central Plateau biogeographic barrier. Mitochondrial DNA (ND2) sequence data was obtained from across the entire range of each Cyclodina species. PD was not predictive of risk. Phylogeographic studies provide insight into how these disjunct and isolated distributional patterns were derived, and enable the level of population structuring in each species prior to decline to be inferred (Towns et al., 2001). A new species of Oligosoma is described from screes in montane tussock grassland in the mid-Canterbury high country, New Zealand, where it is currently known from four sites on two mountain ranges. 4A). 2012). The formation of the New Zealand Institute in the late 1860s provided the opportunity for local naturalists to describe the fauna they collected, and Walter Buller, Frederick Hutton and William Colenso, in particular, began to describe new species. Any queries (other than missing material) should be directed to the corresponding author for the article. 4B). After half a century during which little taxonomic work was done, a monograph of the local lizard fauna by Charles McCann provided the next platform for research and was followed by the burgeoning of field-based ecological studies. Cyclodina aenea är en ödleart som beskrevs av Girard 1857. Both of these factors have influenced the rate of species discovery and description. The level of genetic differentiation evident within C. aenea‘Poor Knights Islands’ (restricted to the Poor Knights Islands; PGD = 0.6%; 0.43 Mya) and C. aenea‘Te Paki’ (restricted to northern Northland; PGD = 0.5%; 0.36 Mya) is relatively low, but substantially greater in the more widespread C. aenea (PGD = 2.5%; 1.79 Mya). Clade 1 (70 bootstrap, 1.0 posterior probability; PGD = 1.9%; 1.36 Mya) contains populations from the Auckland region, the islands in the Hauraki Gulf (Mokohinau Islands, Hen and Chickens Islands, Little Barrier Island, Great Barrier Island), and Gisborne (Fig. Ang Oligosoma aeneum sakop sa kahenera nga Cyclodina sa kabanay nga Scincidae. The hRLT from MODELTEST supported the TrN+G substitution model as the most appropriate for our dataset (−ln L = 2342.5625). 2013). Cyclodina oliveri. By contrast, the distributions of Oligosoma species are restricted entirely to the north or entirely to the south of this region, with no species continuously distributed across the North Island (McCann, 1955; Bull & Whitaker, 1975; Towns et al., 1985; Gill & Whitaker, 2001). 4B). nov. O. auroraensis sp. Substantial phylogeographic structure was evident in the two widespread species (C. aenea, C. ornata), with Pliocene and Pleistocene divergences between clades evident. Morphological and ecological differences distinguish Cyclodina from Oligosoma, the other endemic skink genus in New Zealand (Patterson & Daugherty, 1995).
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