Apes and humans are well known to kill snakes for food or out of fear. The Black-necked Spitting Cobra is a large cobra that can exceed 2 meters in length. These snakes mate from June until August. On 20 December 2019, the R2 reactor was permanently shut down. It almost always spits its venom from a hooded position, lunging forward as it spits the venom. Rinkhals also may live in swamps around southern Africa. 2004. If distressed, rinkhals spread their hood, showing their distinctive, striped neck. They are moderately sized snakes that can grow to a length of 1.2 to 2.2 m in length. Members of the genus Naja are the most widespread and the most widely recognized as "true" cobras. As soon as the threat has past the Rinkhals will correct itself and make a quick escape. The rinkhals (Hemachatus haemachatus), also called the ringhals or ring-necked spitting cobra, is a species of venomous elapid found in parts of southern Africa. It averages roughly 1.4 metres (4.6 ft), with the longest recorded specimen measuring 2.59 metres (8.5 ft). ... in size and has a population of around 2 million. , Rinkhals are unique amongst African cobras in being ovoviviparous. As a result of the Barsebäck strainer incident in 1992 the recirculation strainer capacity was significantly increased for R1 in 1992 and R2 in 1994. The regulator acknowledged the improvements, and the increased surveillance was waived for 2013.. The red spitting cobra is a species of spitting cobra native to Africa. Colouration varies throughout its distribution area, but a characteristic of the species is the belly is dark with one or two light-coloured crossbands on the throat. The Black Spitting Cobra is a large cobra of around 1.7 meters in length but can reach up to 2 meters. It is known to enter houses at night and bite sleeping victims, often on the hands and face. Currently, this species is classified as Least Concern (LC) on the IUCN Red List and its numbers today are stable. The systems went into operation at Barsebäck 1985 and for the other plants 1989. Sign up to have our free monthly newsletter delivered to your inbox: Before you download this resource, would you like to join our email newsletter list? An isolated population is centered on Inyanga on the Zimbabwe-Mozambique border. Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub, https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/177556/115659071. We are the leading training provider of Snake Awareness, First Aid for Snakebite, and Venomous Snake Handling courses in Africa, as well as the largest distributor of quality snake handling equipment on the continent. The coloration of these snakes varies throughout their distribution area. The forest cobra is a generalist in its feeding habits, having a highly varied diet: anything from large insects to small mammals and other reptiles. When confronting a human, it generally aims its venom at the face. It is the sole member of the genus Ophiophagus. The Caspian cobra, also called the Central Asian cobra, ladle snake, Oxus cobra, or Russian cobra is a species of venomous snake in the family Elapidae. While rinkhals bear a great resemblance to true cobras they also possess some remarkable differences from these, resulting in their placement outside the genus Naja. The electrolyser is the heart of the factory. So far the public and political opinion in Sweden was fairly positive to nuclear power. On 30 July 2018, Ringhals-2 was taken offline during the 2018 European heat wave, since the sea water temperature exceeded the design limit 25 DegC. In case of an accident with core degradation and loss of all cooling systems the ICSS can still limit the containment pressure, and should this fail the FCVS can relieve the containment pressure with limited releases of radioactivity.  Ringhals 3 and 4 are still expected to continue in service until the 2040s.. This species was formerly in the genus Boulengerina, but more recent research by Wallach et al. Their spitting mechanism is primitive due to which the snake has to rear up and fling its body forward to spray its venom. Members of the family have a wide range of sizes, from the 18 cm (7.1 in) white-lipped snake to the 5.85 m king cobra. In southern Africa, spitting occurs in 4 cobra species and the Rinkhals. Article was last reviewed on 4th June 2019. Exposure may be time, space, distance, area, volume, or population size. Firstly, the compressor muscle, used to squeeze the venom glands and inject venom into prey, became enlarged in spitting snakes. A small to medium sized snake usually 90 cm to 120 cm in length, but can reach 1,5m. In January 2016, Vattenfall announced that all its Swedish nuclear power plants, including the newer reactors, were operating at a loss due to low electricity prices and Sweden's nuclear power tax ("effektskatt"). The Three Mile Island accident occurred the following day which triggered a referendum in Sweden about nuclear power. It is the world's largest species of spitting cobra. The structure of the fang itself also changed. Its main prey is toads,  but it also eats small mammals, amphibians, and other reptiles. Unlike Adders and Vipers, elapids (cobras, mambas and their relatives) have short fixed fangs that cannot be moved or fold. SFS 2017:401 - Riksdagen", "Vattenfall seeks to return reactors to profitability", "Energiöverenskommelsen 2016-06-10 (the agreement about energy in Sweden 2016-06-10)", "Unikt avtal - reaktor säkrar elnätet i sommar", Deutsche Gesellschaft zum Bau und Betrieb von Endlagern für Abfallstoffe, Deutsche Offshore-Testfeld und Infrastruktur, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ringhals_Nuclear_Power_Plant&oldid=965441202, Buildings and structures in Halland County, Infobox mapframe without OSM relation ID on Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 1 July 2020, at 09:59. Further north in its range, the Black-necked Spitting Cobra may be common around human dwellings and fowl runs. Colouration varies throughout its distribution area, but a characteristic of the species is the belly is dark with one or two light-coloured crossbands on the throat. Elapidae is a family of venomous snakes characterized by hollow, permanently erect, relatively short fangs in the front of the mouth that channel venom into their prey. Additionally, spitting cobras in Asia developed without grasslands or large herbivores. Unit R4, starting later, could take advantage of being aware of the problems, and due to high attention to water chemistry and maintenance efforts the R4 steam generators were replaced in 2011 after 28 years of operation. Most species have neurotoxins in their venom, while some may contain other toxic components in various proportions. In October 2015, Vattenfall decided to close down Ringhals 1 by 2020 and Ringhals 2 by 2019 due to their declining profitability, instead of, as previously announced, around 2025. Opinion changed and in the parliamentary election of 1976 a new government was elected with a clear mandate to phase out nuclear power no later than 1985. 92-71: Partial Plugging of Suppression Pool Strainers at a Foreign BWR", "R1-R4 ENSREG Stress Test - Summary (Ringhals document)", "Villkor för oberoende härdkylning för Ringhals 3 (Requirements for independent core cooling for Ringhals 3) (Nearly identical requirements for other Swedish reactors)", "Upgrade allows continued operation of Ringhals units", "Pressmeddelande: SSM beslutar om särskilda villkor för drift vid Ringhals", "Ringhals: myndigheten upphäver särskild tillsyn (Ringhals: The Regulator waives increased surveillance)", "Explosives found at Sweden nuclear site in Ringhals", "Greenpeace cyklade in på Ringhals (Greenpeace entered Ringhals by bike)", "Sweden's Ringhals-2 nuclear reactor offline due to high water temperature", "Ringhals 2 stängs redan 2019 (Ringhals 2 will close already 2019)", "Sweden to speed up nuclear reactors closure", "Lag (2000:466) om skatt på termisk effekt i kärnkraftsreaktorer Svensk författningssamling 2000:2000:466 t.o.m. Units R3 and R4 made similar upgrades in 2005.  Through an agreement 10 June 2016 the major part of the nuclear power tax was removed on 1 July 2017, but combined with prolonged and enhanced support for renewable electricity production. The reactor was restarted on 3 August. As a result of analysis and observations from the Three Mile Island accident, the Ringhals PWR reactors installed PAR - Passive Autocatalytic hydrogen Recombiners in 2007.
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